After the invention of the first electric motor in 1834, the application and use of electric motors increased rapidly. Since then, electric motors have become an integral part of our lives. From kitchen blenders to the Aviation industry, everything revolves around motors. Nowadays, we cannot imagine our industrial sector without electric motors. There are different types of electric motors with a wide range of applications available in the marketplace. Every motor has different functions and specifications. Industries select electric motors that complement their machinery requirements (voltage range, capacity, and speed).
However, this task could be hectic sometimes. The diversity of a wide range of electric motors confuses the consumers to choose suitable motors for the desired purpose. For that purpose, we have organized different types of electric motors; their structure, performance, and applications in this article. It will answer all your concerns and queries regarding different kinds of electric motors and their uses.
Let’s uncover various electric motor types and applications;
Different Types of Electric Motors:
Electric motors are classified into various categories and subcategories based on their construction, working mechanism, and properties. There are many different types of electric motors available for different industrial and commercial applications. The general classification of electric motors is AC and DC electric motors.
Figure 1: Motor Types Chart
Let’s discuss ac dc motors comprehensively;
1. A.C Motors:
The motors that are driven by the alternating current are known as A.C motors. These motors convert alternating current into mechanical powers using a special phenomenon called electromagnetic induction. The working mechanism of A.C motors involves two major parts called Stator and Rotor. The stator is stationary and converts energy into a magnetic field. The rotor rotates around the magnetic field implemented by the stator. Basically, the stator and rotor work together to provide power to the machinery.
There are two different categories of A.C motors; Synchronous Motors and Asynchronous Motors. The classification of A.C motors is based on operational capacity and working principles.
In a synchronous electric motor, the motor is synchronized with the frequency of the current. The rotor rotates with synchronous speed according to the rotating fields. Like many other different types of electric motors, synchronous motors are not self-starting because the rotor does not produce high starting torque. Since they are non-self-starting, synchronous motors require external power to speed up. The synchronous motors provide constant and steady speed to the appliance. The general applications of A.C synchronous motors are as follows:
- CNC machines
- Robot Actuators
- Ball Mill machines
- Record Player
- Retro turntable
Asynchronous motors are also known as induction motors. The A.C induction motors utilize magnetic induction to convert electrical current into mechanical power. The speed of the rotor in induction motors is less than the synchronous speed. That is why; these motors are called asynchronous motors. Unlike synchronous motors, an induction motor does not demand external power; hence, the speed of the rotor depends on electromagnetic induction. Asynchronous motors have a wide variety of applications because they have strong moving and rotating power. Asynchronous motors are used in:
- Lifting machinery
- Oil and lathe machines
- Paper and textile industry
2. D.C Motors:
The electric motor that converts direct current into mechanical energy is widely known as the D.C motor. Direct Current electric motor has an armature, rotor, stator, shaft, and field winding. When we supply power to the D.C motor, a magnetic field is established in the stator. The magnetic field attraction causes the rotor to rotate. D.C motors are commonly used for industrial purposes because they provide high speed and precision. D.C motors have the ability to control the operation of the machinery. These motors have a wide range of applications. Some are:
- Steel and Rolling Mills
- Press Machines
There are further two categories of D.C motors based on their structure and control system.
Figure 2: Brushed And Brushless D.C Motor Diagram
Brushed D.C Motor:
D.C motors in which the rotor is powered by the brushes are known as brushed D.C motors. The brushes commutate the motor and cause rotation. The efficiency rate of brushed D.C motors is 75% to 80%. The brushes cause friction; therefore, the brushed DC motors are not long-lasting.
Brushless D.C Motor:
Primarily, Brushless D.C motors work on the same principle, but the construction of brushless D.C motors is different. It does not have brushes as a mechanical commutator. The electronic commutator controls the magnetic field. Brushless D.C motors are more efficient than brushed motors. The loss of energy is minimum in brushless motors. The efficiency rate of brushless DC motors is 85% to 95%.
Different Types Of Motors Used In Industries:
Industries utilize different kinds of electric motors for multiple purposes. Electric motor manufacturers have produced different types of electric motors that carry out machinery operations effectively. In this section, we will discuss some most commonly-used electric motors in industrial sectors.
Let’s have a look.
Single Phase Electric Motor:
Single phase electric motors are the most commonly used electric motors in the world. These motors are budget-friendly and reliable. Some major applications of these motors are domestic and small-scale appliances. All house appliances and micro types of machinery are operated on single-phase electric motors. Like all different types of electric motors, single phase motors have IP44 and IP55 protection classes. Single phase motors are low noise bearing and eco-friendly. These motors reduce high pitch noise in the appliances. The best feature of single phase motors is their lightweight and compact size. However, the small size and weight do not affect the performance of the motor. Single phase electric motors have a 50HZ to 60HZ frequency rate. It makes them high-performing and reliable motors.
Figure 3: Single Phase Motor Wiring Diagram
Single phase electric motors are long-lasting and durable because they are dust and water-resistant. Furthermore, these motors do not demand regular maintenance. You can find maintenance services for single-phase motors at very affordable rates.
Three Phase Motor:
Three-phase electric motors are specially designed for high-power applications, like industrial and commercial applications. Three-phase electric motors have three winding coils. The stationary stator separates these coils. These motors usually have a squirrel cage rotor that rotates inside the magnetic field. 3-phase motors are self-starting and provide high torque value. The maximum voltage range of three phase motor is 380V. These motors have low noise bearing, which protects the environment from noise pollution. A three phase motor looks like this:
Figure 4: Three-phase Electric Motor
The three-phase electric motor category further includes different types of electric motors depending upon their sizes and functions.
Explosion Proof Motor:
Industrial sites deal with high temperatures and explosive gases regularly. Therefore, Industrial factories and sites experience explosions and injuries most often. Industrial motor manufacturers developed explosion-proof motors to reduce risks in the working place. They designed this motor to eliminate the chances of electric shock, spark, and explosions. Explosion-proof motors have a permanent magnet (brushless) which lowers the friction between internal parts of the motor. These motors have an electronic controller that detects the malfunctioning parts of the motor. The internal part of the explosion proof motor is secured by a squirrel cage and B class insulation. Moreover, these motors have an auto-ignition temperature and cooling system which protects the motor from overheating and sparking. The construction material of explosion-proof motors is of supreme quality. It ensures durability and reliability in unfavorable conditions.
Figure 5: Explosion-proof Electric Motor
Although there are different types of electric motors available for heavy industrial operations, explosion-proof motors are the best choices for industrial purposes. The outstanding features of this motor make it the perfect fit for a hot and volatile environment.
OEM Electric Motor:
OEM stands for “original electric equipment manufacturer.” It means that these electric motors are fully customizable. Electric motor manufacturers produce OEM motors according to customers’ requirements. These motors have a wide range of applications in the automotive, textile, mounting, and electronic industries. The OEM motors have a 90% to 95% efficiency rate. These motors are highly operational and long-lasting. As the OEM motors are completely customizable, the clients have the liberty to choose desired frequency and voltage range. Moreover, OEM motors have various cooling methods (e.g., liquid cooling, natural cooling, and surface cooling). Customers can choose a cooling system that complements the nature of their operation. OEM motors perform efficiently while utilizing low voltages. One significant feature that makes OEM motors stand out in different types of electric motors is ambient conditions. Manufacturers customize OEM motors according to your environment and mounting conditions. Proper protection and regular maintenance can extend the life of OEM motors.
Permanent Magnet Electric Motors:
The permanent magnet electric motors are made of 100% copper coil and permanent magnet material (NdFeB and rare earth material). These motors are designed to provide power supply through an inverter. Therefore, permanent magnet electric motors have an adjustable wide speed range. These motors operate through an electronically controlled commutator which makes them high-power motors. Permanent magnet electric motors can provide accurate and quick responses. The adjustable feature of the permanent magnet electric motor ensures stable torque and speed. The brushless and fast-speed feature makes these motors superior to different types of electric motors. These motors have IP55 protection and H insulation class to secure them from internal damage. Permanent magnet electric motors are used in automobile fans, starters, air conditioners, and washers.
Industrial Motors are high efficient motors made of high-grade raw material to meet the demand of industrial operations. Industrial motors include AC (alternating current) and DC (direct current) electric motors. AC industrial motors are used widely, whereas; DC motors give more precise and accurate results. Like all other motor categories, the structure of industrial motors consists of an armature, rotor, stator, coils, and commutators. Industrial motors generally have high speed and torque, but customers prefer variable speed ranges. The average lifespan of industrial motors is more than 15 years under suitable environments and conditions. The industrial motor consists of different types of electric motors. Some of them are as follows:
- Three phase motor (Asynchronous)
- C shunt motors
- C series motors
- Slip Ring Induction Motor
- Single/double squirrel cage induction motors
These motors are the perfect choice for constant-speed industrial operations. Industrial motors have strong positioning and stability. However, some industrial motors demand a stepper or servo motor to establish a controlled position.
Industrial Applications Of Different Types Of Electric Motors:
The automotive industry demands high power and speed for proper functioning. The automotive industry operates different types of electric motors. Electric motors having high starting torque, efficiency, and speed are used in the vehicle industry. The automotive industry uses BLDC motors (brushless) due to their traction properties. These days, water-cooling electric motors are used in electric vehicles to avoid overheating.
One of the most common applications of electric motors is the textile industry. Different types of electric motors run various textiles processes. However, the brushless DC motor is the most commonly-used electric motor in the textile industry.
Induction motors are widely used in the water pumping industry because it pumps out water at high speed. Induction motors are low noise bearing, cost-effective and long-lasting. Therefore, these motors perform well under wet conditions.
Manufacturing machining and power tools:
AC DC electric motors are used for making efficient and durable machining tools. A.C motor is used for making light machine equipment and tools, whereas a D.C motor is preferable for making heavy-duty machinery tools.
Almost all domestic household appliances utilize single-phase A.C motors. A.C motors have a compact size and small power conversion. This quality of A.C motors makes them the best fit for household appliances. Single phase electric motors are used in refrigerators, fans, hairdryers, washing machines, and food blenders.
Different electric motors are designed for different industrial and domestic purposes. The primary purpose of the electric motor is to control and support the overall system. Finding out the electric motor that works perfectly with the nature of machinery is hectic and time-consuming. Different types of electric motors have different frequencies, torque, and voltage ranges. Therefore, electric motor manufacturers provide impressive customization to fulfill customers’ demands. If a motor carries out machinery functions smoothly, that’s a perfect choice. Xinnuo Motors offer cost-effective, supreme quality and reliable electric motors to its customers. Reach out to our support team today and order your required electric motor.