Every machine requires a specific motor to function. If you want a compact motor that consumes less energy, a single-phase motor is best for your needs. But it is important to understand single phase electric motor parts, types, and function for acknowledgement.
Figure 1: Single-phase electric motor
Single phase motor is used for domestic applications to get jobs done most appropriately. China’s leading electric motor manufacturer, Xinnuo motor, offers high-quality electric motors. In this article, we will provide you with all the detail about single phase motor parts. So, let’s get started.
Single phase electric motor parts:
Since these motors are small and robust, single phase electric motor parts consist mainly of the stator and rotor.
The stator is one of the most important single phase electric motor parts. The single-phase alternating current supply extends to the stator winding. In the middle of the rotor and the stator, there is an air gap. The stator winding is split into two parts: the main winding and the auxiliary winding.
The placement of these two types of windings is in the way that the auxiliary winding and the main winding are perpendicular to each other. In induction motors, the main winding has more turns than the auxiliary winding.
Second in the list of single phase electric motor parts is the rotor. It is a rotating part that looks similar to the squirrel cage. The rotor has a laminated iron core with many slots. The rotor is attached to the mechanical load with the help of a shaft. Rotor conductors have copper or aluminum bars placed in the slots of the rotor.
A fan in a single-phase electric motor helps dissipate extra heat, thus reducing the temperature to a normal level. It helps the motor to perform accurately in severe climate conditions. Fans and cooling systems are used to maintain the temperature gradient.
The housing of single-phase motors is made with 100% stainless steel and copper coil with a protection class of IP44 and IP55. The compact housing allows easy positioning of the motor. Moreover, it is resistant to water, grease, and oil.
What is the difference between a single-phase motor and a three-phase motor?
Below are the differences between three-phase motors and single-phase motors:
- A single-phase motor needs less maintenance than a three-phase motor which requires regular maintenance.
- A single-phase motor requires two wires, and a three-phase motor requires three or four wires to power and operate.
- Direction control in a three-phase motor is easy to change by swapping any two input values, whereas in a single-phase electric motor, it is a bit difficult.
- Single phase motor gives a voltage level of 230 volts, whereas a three-phase motor gives a 415V voltage level.
- The three-phase motor does not require an external device to start it. Single-phase motor does not self-start on its own.
- The three-phase motor has complex and expensive construction. On the other hand, a single-phase motor is reliable and has reliable construction.
For an in-depth understanding, please read our latest article on single phase electric motors.
Different types of single-phase electric motors:
There are 5 types of single-phase induction motors, and each is discussed below:
Resistance start motor:
Figure 2: Resistance-start motor
In these types of motors, the auxiliary winding of the motor is connected with high resistance in series. These motors are applicable in those areas where moderate starting torque is required.
Capacitor start motor:
An electrolytic capacitor is connected in series with the auxiliary winding in this motor. The primary and auxiliary winding has high inductive and capacitive inductance, respectively. It is used in oil burners, workshop tools, and fans.
Capacitor-start and capacitor-run single-phase motor:
Figure 3: Capacitor run and start motors
This motor is more accurate than the above two motors and has a 25% better overload capacity. These motors produce low noise, so they fit better in surroundings where no noise is needed.
Permanent capacitor single-phase induction motor:
Permanent capacitor single phase electric motor parts consist of a centrifugal switch with start and rotor. These motors do not give optimum starting and running conditions. These types of motors are mainly used in domestic appliances.
Shaded pole motor:
This motor does not have any moving switch parts or capacitors in it. It consists of salient poles. Due to low starting torque, they are only applicable in toys or small machinery like photocopying.
Understanding single phase electric motor parts is necessary to acknowledge their working. For daily life applications, single-phase motors are suitable for domestic use. They are long-lasting and easy and handle.
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Frequently asked questions
Why a single phase motor is not self-starting?
Single-phase electric motors are not self-starting because there is no torque. The two components of this flux cancel each other at the start, and produced stator flux is alternating in nature.
Why does a single-phase electric motor need a capacitor?
A capacitor is required for a single-phase electric motor because without it start induction motor cannot run. It needs a capacitor to produce the starting torque.